The 4% rule is a widely discussed strategy in the context of early retirement and financial independence. It suggests that retirees can withdraw 4% of their retirement portfolio annually without running out of money over a 30-year period. Here’s a detailed overview of the 4% rule and how it applies to early retirement:

The Origin of the 4% Rule

The 4% rule originates from a study by financial planner William Bengen in the 1990s. Bengen analyzed historical market data to determine a “safe” withdrawal rate that would ensure a retirement portfolio lasts for at least 30 years. He concluded that a retiree could withdraw 4% of their initial retirement savings each year, adjusted for inflation, with a high likelihood of not depleting their funds.

How the 4% Rule Works in

  1. Initial Withdrawal: In the first year of retirement, the retiree withdraws 4% of their total portfolio. For example, if a retiree has 1.000.000 Euro saved, they would withdraw 40.000 in the first year.
  2. Adjusting for Inflation: Each subsequent year, the retiree adjusts the withdrawal amount to account for inflation. If inflation is 2%, the second year’s withdrawal would be 40.800.

Assumptions of the 4% Rule

  • 30-Year Retirement Period: The rule is based on a retirement period of 30 years, which may not be sufficient for those retiring very early.
  • Investment Mix: Bengen’s analysis assumes a diversified portfolio with a mix of stocks and bonds.
  • Historical Data: The rule is based on historical market performance, which may not predict future returns accurately.

Applicability to Early Retirement

For those pursuing early retirement, often referred to as the FIRE (Financial Independence, Retire Early) movement, the 4% rule may require adjustments:

  1. Longer Time Horizon: Early retirees might need their savings to last 40-50 years or more. In this case, a more conservative withdrawal rate, such as 3-3.5%, might be advisable.
  2. Market Conditions: Early retirees should consider current and projected market conditions, as prolonged downturns can impact the sustainability of withdrawals.
  3. Flexibility: Being flexible with spending can increase the likelihood of a portfolio lasting longer. This might include reducing withdrawals during market downturns or finding additional income sources.

Criticisms and Alternatives

  • Overly Conservative or Aggressive: Some argue the 4% rule is too conservative, while others believe it is too aggressive for longer retirement periods.
  • Dynamic Withdrawal Strategies: Alternatives to the 4% rule include dynamic withdrawal strategies that adjust based on market performance and remaining life expectancy.


The 4% rule provides a foundational guideline for planning retirement withdrawals. While useful, it should be adapted to individual circumstances, particularly for those aiming for early retirement. Flexibility and ongoing financial planning are key to ensuring a sustainable and secure retirement.

For more comprehensive information, you can refer to resources like Bengen’s original study, financial planning literature, or the numerous discussions in the FIRE community.

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